abstract = {Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.},
author = {Wolmetz, Michael and Elhilali, Mounya},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0149635},
editor = {Snyder, Joel},
isbn = {1932-6203; 1932-6203},
issn = {1932-6203},
journal = {PLOS ONE},
number = {2},
pages = {e0149635},
title = {{Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception}},
url = {http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149635},
volume = {11},
year = {2016}