Ralph Etienne-Cummings

Professor and Chair
Google Scholar

I am currently a professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). I was the Associate Director for Education and Outreach of the National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored Engineering Research Centers on Computer Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology at JHU and the former Director of Computer Engineering at JHU and the Institute of Neuromorphic Engineering (currently administered by University of Maryland, College Park).

My research interest includes mixed signal VLSI systems, computational sensors, computer vision, neuromorphic engineering, smart structures, mobile robotics, legged locomotion and neuroprosthetic devices.

I received my B. Sc. in physics, 1988, from Lincoln University, Pennsylvania. I completed my M.S.E.E. and Ph.D. in electrical engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in December 1991 and 1994, respectively. I have served as Chairman of the IEEE Circuits and Systems (CAS) Technical Committee on Sensory Systems and on Neural Systems and Application, and was re-elected as a member of CAS Board of Governors from 1/2007 – 1/2009. I was also the General Chair of the IEEE BioCAS Conference in 2008, and serves on its Steering Committee. I was also a member of Imagers, MEMS, Medical and Displays Technical Committee of the ISSCC Conference from 1999 – 2006. I also serve on numerous editorial boards and was recently appointed Deputy Editor in Chief for the IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. I am the recipient of the NSF’s Career and Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Program Awards. In 2006, I was named a Visiting African Fellow and a Fulbright Fellowship Grantee for his sabbatical at University of Cape Town, South Africa. I was invited to be a lecturer at the National Academies of Science Kavli Frontiers Program, held in November 2007. I won the 2010 JHU Applied Physics Lab R.W. Hart Prize for Best R&D Project in Development. I have also won publication awards, including the 2011 Best Paper Award for IEEE Transactions of Biomedical Circuits and Systems, 2003 Best Paper Award of the EURASIP Journal of Applied Signal Processing and “Best Ph.D. in a Nutshell” at the IEEE BioCAS 2008 Conference, and have been recognized for my activities in promoting the participation of women and minorities in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. In 2012, I was recognized as a “ScienceMaker”, as part of the HistoryMakers which is an African American history archive and was elected as an IEEE Fellow for contributions in “neuromorphic sensory-motor circuits and systems”.


Proto-Object Based Saliency Model with Second-Order Texture Feature

Automated Tracking System for Identification of Tagged Mice for Automatic Social Behavior Analysis

Computational stereo-vision model of proto-object based saliency in three-dimensional space

The Challenges of Designing an Inductively Coupled Power Link for μm-sized On-Chip Coils

Large-Scale Neuromorphic Spiking Array Processors: A Quest to Mimic the Brain

A Model-Based Systems Engineering Approach to Trade Space Exploration of Implanted Wireless Biotelemetry Communication Systems

Using Deep Learning to Extract Scenery Information in Real Time Spatiotemporal Compressed Sensing

An Unsupervised Compressed Sensing Algorithm for Multi-Channel Neural Recording and Spike Sorting

An analogue neuromorphic Co-processor that utilizes device mismatch for learning applications

The Microbead: A Highly Miniaturized Wirelessly Powered Implantable Neural Stimulating System

Compressed Sensing for High Density Neural Recording

Spatiotemporal compressed sensing for video compression

Live demonstration: A compact all-CMOS spatiotemporal compressed sensing video camera

Neuromorphic visual saliency implementation using stochastic computation

Low-power, low-mismatch, highly-dense array of VLSI Mihalas-Niebur neurons

Live demonstration: Real-time, dynamic visual saliency computation in a VR environment seeing through the eyes of a mobile robot

Live demonstration: FPGA neural array emulation for real-time, event-based simultaneous dewarping and filtering for aerial vehicles

Live demonstration: Event-based image processing on CMOS Mihalas-Niebur neuron array transceiver

Iontophoresis instrumentation for the enhancement of gene therapy in wound healing

Live demonstration: A wirelessly powered highly miniaturized neural stimulator

In-vivo tests of an inductively powered miniaturized neural stimulator

A model based approach for realizing a safe wireless biotelemetry system

Novel integration and packaging concepts of highly miniaturized inductively powered neural implants

Automatic detection of electrocardiographic arrhythmias by parallel continuous neural networks implemented in FPGA

Active phantoms: a paradigm for ultrasound calibration using phantom feedback

Coil array design for maximizing wireless power transfer to sub-mm sized implantable devices

Real-time image segmentation using a spiking neuromorphic processor

Inference in spiking Bayesian neurons using stochastic computation

A CMOS current steering neurostimulation array with integrated DAC calibration and charge balancing

A Bidirectional Neural Interface IC With Chopper Stabilized BioADC Array and Charge Balanced Stimulator

A bidirectional neural interface IC with chopper stabilized BioADC array and charge balanced stimulator

Intraspinal microstimulation produces over-ground walking in anesthetized cats

Intraspinal microstimulation produces over-ground walking in anesthetized cats

Stochastic image processing and simultaneous dewarping for aerial vehicles

A compact, low-power, fully analog implantable microstimulator

A fully integrated wireless compressed sensing neural signal acquisition system for chronic recording and brain machine interface

Communication channel analysis and real time compressed sensing for high density neural recording devices

Enhanced visual perception through tone mapping

Compact all-CMOS spatiotemporal compressive sensing video camera with pixel-wise coded exposure

A mixed-signal VLSI system for producing temporally adapting intraspinal microstimulation patterns for locomotion

Bio-inspired system architecture for energy efficient, BIGDATA computing with application to wide area motion imagery

A 5 μW/channel 9b-ENOB BioADC array for electrocortical recording

Live demonstration: Real-time implementation of a proto-object-based dynamic visual saliency model

Giving machines humanlike eyes

CMOS implementation of pixel-wise coded exposure imaging for insect-based sensor node

Compressed sensing block-wise exposure control algorithm using optical flow estimation

FPGA emulation of a spike-based, stochastic system for real-time image dewarping

Active point out-of-plane ultrasound calibration

An unsupervised dictionary learning algorithm for neural recordings

How is motion integrated into a proto-object based visual saliency model?

A closed-loop compressive-sensing-based neural recording system.

HFirst: A Temporal Approach to Object Recognition

A dictionary learning algorithm for multi-channel neural recordings

Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

Live demonstration: A closed loop Compressive Sensing neural recording system

Energy-efficient multi-mode compressed sensing system for implantable neural recordings

Bioinspired imaging: discovery, emulation, and future prospects

Bioinspired Visual Motion Estimation

Active echo: a new paradigm for ultrasound calibration

Photoacoustic active ultrasound element for catheter tracking

An Efficient and Compact Compressed Sensing Microsystem for Implantable Neural Recordings

An efficient and compact compressed sensing microsystem for implantable neural recordings

Energy-efficient two-stage Compressed Sensing method for implantable neural recordings

Proto-object based visual saliency model with a motion-sensitive channel

A model of proto-object based saliency

Real-time motion estimation using spatiotemporal filtering in FPGA

A spiking neural network architecture for visual motion estimation

Selecting a safe power level for an indoor implanted UWB wireless biotelemetry link

Empowering Low-Cost CMOS Cameras by Image Processing to Reach Comparable Results with Costly CCDs

Reconstruction of neural action potentials using signal dependent sparse representations

Fast Neuromimetic Object Recognition Using FPGA Outperforms GPU Implementations

Fast neuromimetic object recognition using FPGA outperforms GPU implementations

Auditory modulation of visual proto-object formation in a hierarchical auditory-visual saliency map

Plenoptic cameras in real-time robotics

Live demonstration: A tactile perception system for sensing the visual world

Live demo: Spiking ratslam: Rat hippocampus cells in spiking neural hardware

A Miniaturized Platform for Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging

A miniaturized platform for laser speckle contrast imaging

Real Time Compressive Sensing Video Reconstruction in Hardware

Real time compressive sensing video reconstruction in hardware

Prevention and diagnosis of retained foreign bodies through the years: Past, present, and future technologies

Prevention and diagnosis of retained foreign bodies through the years: past, present, and future technologies

Neuromorphic approach to a locomotion control algorithm as applied to the cat walking cycle

Intraspinal Microstimulation for Restoring Walking

Modified Map-Seeking Circuit: Use of Computer-Aided Detection in Locating Postoperative Retained Foreign Bodies1

Perceptual organization, attention and object recognition: Closing the loop

An entropy based ideal observer model for visual saliency

Parameter estimation of a spiking silicon neuron

Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats

Towards a Cortical Prosthesis: Implementing A Spike-Based HMAX Model of Visual Object Recognition in Silico

Design of a novel head-mountable microscope system for laser speckle imaging

Computer Aided Detection Of Retained Foreign Bodies

Maximum likelihood parameter estimation of a spiking silicon neuron

A CMOS in-pixel CTIA high-sensitivity fluorescence imager

Implementation of functional components of the locomotion processing unit

Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

Sensor and display human factors based design constraints for head mounted and tele-operation systems

Silicon Modeling of the Mihalaş–Niebur Neuron

A low-cost COTS UWB transceiver for biological applications achieves 50 Mb/s with < 10−6 Raw BER

Parameter estimation of history-dependent leaky integrate-and-fire neurons using maximum-likelihood methods

Estimating parameters of generalized integrate-and-fire neurons from the maximum likelihood of spike trains

A novel 3D display using multi-hyperstereo image stitching

Confession session: Learning from others mistakes

Sponges and incorrect sponge count are a minor contribution to the problem of retained foreign bodies

Optimization methods for spiking neurons and networks

Discriminating multiple nearby targets using single-ping ultrasonic scene mapping

An integrated imaging microscope for untethered cortical imaging in freely-moving animals

Synthesis of log-domain integrators for silicon synapses with global parametric control

Locomotion processing unit

A spike based 3D imager chip using a mixed mode encoding readout

Current mode image sensor with two transistors per pixel

Sponges and incorrect sponge count are a minor contribution to the problem of retained foreign bodies

Phase-based control of the central pattern generator for locomotion

Decoding of individuated finger movements using surface electromyography

A first-order nonhomogeneous Markov model for the response of spiking neurons stimulated by small phase-continuous signals

A color detection glove with haptic feedback for the visually disabled

Real-time implementation of biofidelic sa1 model for tactile feedback

Simulation of a single ping ultrasonic bearing estimation design using spatiotemporal filtering

Which photodiode to use: a comparison of CMOS-compatible structures

Design and characterization of a miniaturized epi-illuminated microscope

Low-voltage high CMRR OTA for electrophysiological measurements

A switched capacitor implementation of the generalized linear integrate-and-fire neuron

A CMOS switched capacitor implementation of the Mihalas-Niebur neuron

Focal-plane change triggered video compression for low-power vision sensor systems

A silicon central pattern generator controls locomotion in vivo

Biomorphic circuits and systems: Control of robotic and prosthetic limbs

The feeling of color: A haptic feedback device for the visually disabled

A two-neuron cross-correlation circuit with a wide and continuous range of time delay

A First-Order Non-Homogeneous Markov Model for the Response of Spiking Neurons Stimulated by Small Phase-Continuous Signals

Continuous decoding of finger position from surface EMG signals for the control of powered prostheses

Towards control of dexterous hand manipulations using a silicon Pattern Generator

Practical considerations for the use of a Howland current source for neuro-stimulation

Configuring silicon neural networks using genetic algorithms

Real-time silicon implementation of V1 in hierarchical visual information processing

Implementing a neuromorphic cross-correlation engine with silicon neurons

Adaptive hysteretic comparator with opamp threshold level setting

A wide speed range and high precision position and velocity measurements chip with serial peripheral interface

A 5-bits precision CMOS bandgap reference with on-chip bi-directional resistance trimming

Finite element modeling of tissue for optimal ultrasonic transducer array design

Image sensor with focal plane change event driven video compression

A size and position invariant event-based human posture recognition algorithm

Correction to" Asynchronous Decoding of Dexterous Finger Movements Using M1 Neurons"[Feb 08 3-14]

Asynchronous decoding of dexterous finger movements using M1 neurons

Decoding individuated finger movements using volume-constrained neuronal ensembles in the M1 hand area

Wireless systems could improve neural prostheses

Two transistor current mode active pixel sensor

Wireless address event representation system for biological sensor networks (Invited Paper)[6592-04]

CMOS imagers: from phototransduction to image processing

A multichip neuromorphic system for spike-based visual information processing

Towards the control of individual fingers of a prosthetic hand using surface EMG signals

Sensor-based dynamic control of the central pattern generator for locomotion

A simple neural cross-correlation engine

Configuring of spiking central pattern generator networks for bipedal walking using genetic algorthms

Linear current-mode active pixel sensor

AER auditory filtering and CPG for robot control

Wireless address event representation system for biological sensor networks

Spike-based MAX networks for nonlinear pooling in hierarchical vision processing

Incremental encoder based position and velocity measurements vlsi chip with serial peripheral interface

A robust multi-application automatic gain control chip

Design and Optimization of a Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Micro-Array for Near Field Sensing

Video sensor node for low-power ad-hoc wireless networks

Optical flow approximation of sub-pixel accurate block matching for video coding

ISCAS Special Session Demo: Wireless Video Sensor for Ad-hoc Networks

CMOS camera with in-pixel temporal change detection and ADC

Non-Linear Neural Spike Train Decoding via Polynomial Kernel Regression

Towards a brain-computer interface for dexterous control of a multi-fingered prosthetic hand

Image sensor with general spatial processing in a 3D integrated circuit technology

Phase-dependent effects of spinal cord stimulation on locomotor activity

Dynamic control of spinal locomotion circuits

Control of the spinal cord by an analog VLSI device: on the road to development of a neuroprosthetic device for spinal cord injury patients

A floating-gate programmable array of silicon neurons for central pattern generating networks

A second-generation single-chip stereo imager

A 128 x128 33mW 30frames/s single-chip stereo imager

Normal flow measurement visual motion sensor

A simplified normal optical flow measurement CMOS camera

Neuromorphic vision systems for mobile applications

Power dissipation sources and possible control techniques in ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies

Modeling and Simulation of a VLSI Chip for Adaptive Speed Control of Brushed DC Motors

A configurable VLSI chip for DC motor control for compact, low-current robotic systems

Design of an ultrasonic micro-array for near field sensing during retinal microsurgery

Single ping-multiple measurements: Sonar bearing angle estimation using spatiotemporal frequency filters

Cmos pixel-level ADC with change detection

Electrical stimulation of a spinal central pattern generator for locomotion

A spiking silicon central pattern generator with floating gate synapses [robot control applications]

A 1V current-mode CMOS active pixel sensor

Temporal change threshold detection imager

A real-time spike-domain sensory information processing system [image processing applications]

CPG design using inhibitory networks

On-chip normal flow computation with aperture problem compensation circuitry

ColorCam: a color-based object recognition camera

Sonar echo-location in 2-D using mini-microphone array and spatiotemporal frequency filtering

Guest Editorial

Spatial acuity modulation of an address-event imager

Saliency-driven image acuity modulation on a reconfigurable array of spiking silicon neurons

A programmable array of silicon neurons for the control of legged locomotion

Single-chip stereo imager

Low power current rectifiers for large scale current-mode signal processing

Normal optical flow measurement on a CMOS APS imager

A focal plane normal-flow measurement chip

A time-series novelty detection chip for sonar

Linear current mode imager with low fix pattern noise

A pipelined temporal difference imager

Active pixel sensor with on-chip normal flow computation on the read out

Second generation of high dynamic range, arbitrated digital imager

Sensing signal input bearing to sensor array using velocity-sensitive spatiotemporal filters

Focal-plane analog image processing

Bearing angle estimation for sonar micro-array using analog VLSI spatiotemporal processing

Entrainment of silicon central pattern generators for legged locomotory control

Normal optical flow chip

Vision chip for navigating and controlling micro unmanned aerial vehicles

An in silico central pattern generator: silicon oscillator, coupling, entrainment, and physical computation

A time-series processor for sonar mapping and novelty detection

A vision chip for color segmentation and pattern matching

A biomorphic digital image sensor

Biologically inspired vision sensors

Ultrasonic bearing estimation using a MEMS microphone array and spatiotemporal filters

Architecture for an aVLSI stereo vision system

Pipelined temporal difference imager

Implementation of steerable spatiotemporal image filters on the focal plane

Single chip for imaging, color segmentation, histogramming and pattern matching

A dual pixel-type array for imaging and motion centroid localization

High dynamic range, arbitrated address event representation digital imager

Novel Real-Time Tremor Transduction Technique for Microsurgery

Control of a robot leg with an adaptive aVLSI CPG chip

Programmable spatial processing imager chip

High-resolution focal plane image processing

High performance biomorphic image processing under tight space and power constraints

Biologically inspired visual motion detection in VLSI

Architecture for source localization with a linear ultrasonic array

A programmable focal-plane MIMD image processor chip

A dual pixel-type imager for imaging and motion centroid localization

A programmable spatiotemporal image processor chip

Single-capacitor-single-contact active pixel sensor

Toward biomorphic control using custom aVLSI CPG chips

Precision minimally invasive surgery by adaptive organ motion tracking and compensation

CPU-less robotics: distributed control of biomorphs

A foveated silicon retina for two-dimensional tracking

Visual Gait Modification 1st Year Technical Report

Intelligent robot vision sensors in VLSI

Hardware implementation of a visual-motion pixel using oriented spatiotemporal neural filters

Architecture for distributed actuation and sensing using smart piezoelectric elements

Neuromorphic and digital hybrid systems

A general purpose image processing chip: Orientation detection

A focal plane visual motion measurement sensor

VLSI model of Primate visual smooth pursuit

VLSI implementation of cortical visual motion detection using an analog neural computer

Neuromorphic vision sensors

Real-time visual target tracking: two implementations of velocity-based smooth pursuit

Spatiotemporal computation with a general purpose analog neural computer: Real-time visual motion estimation

Large scale analog neural computer with programmable architecture and programmable time constants for temporal pattern analysis

Accurate and simple CMOS'one-over'circuit

A new temporal domain optical flow measurement technique for focal plane VLSI implementation

A general purpose analog neural computer and a silicon retina for real time target acquisition, recognition and tracking

An analog neural computer with modular architecture for real-time dynamic computations

An analog neural computer with modular architecture for real-time dynamic computations

Real-time decomposition and recognition of acoustical patterns with an analog neural computer

Real-time 2D analog motion detector VLSI circuit

Design and performance of a prototype general purpose analog neural computer

A multichip analog neural network

Artificial neural networks: principles and VLSI implementation